Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine

The adrenal glands are each made of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: In males, the testes, located in the scrotum, secrete hormones called androgens; the most important of which is testosterone.

The testes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of androgens, such as testosterone. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are produced by every tissue in the body except for blood tissue in response to damaging stimuli.

Anatomy of the Endocrine System

Exocrine organs direct the function of their target sites by releasing their active. Thyroxine is the major hormone secreted by the thyroid follicles. Each gland is subdivided into an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. When the pituitary gland does not produce one or more of its hormones or not enough of them, it is called hypopituitarism.

One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes. Estrogens are a group of related hormones that function as the primary female sex hormones. Water-soluble hormones are unable to pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and are therefore dependent upon receptor molecules on the surface of cells.

The posterior pituitary is a small extension of the hypothalamus through which the axons of some of the neurosecretory cells Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine the hypothalamus extend.

The mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone, are produced by the outermost adrenal cortex cell layer; mineralocorticoids are important in regulating the mineral or salt content of the blood, particularly the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions and they also help in regulating the water and electrolyte balance in the body.

The thyroid gland produces 3 major hormones: Adrenal Glands Although the adrenal gland looks like a single organ, it is structurally and functionally two endocrine organs in one. Glucocorticoids have many diverse functions, including the breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose.

Hormone that stimulates milk production in females The posterior lobe produces the following hormones, which are not regulated by the hypothalamus: ANP prevents aldosterone release, its goal being to reduce blood volume and blood pressure.

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex The adrenal cortex produces three major groups of steroid hormones, which are collectively called corticosteroids— mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones.

Parathyroid Glands The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland, one pair on each side. Prolactin PRL has many effects on the body, chief of which is that it stimulates the mammary glands of the breast to produce milk.

Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology

Luteinizing hormone LH stimulates the gonads to produce the sex hormones—estrogens in females and testosterone in males. For example, the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 require 3 or 4 iodine atoms, respectively, to be produced. Adipose tissue produces the hormone leptin that is involved in the management of appetite and energy usage by the body.

Each gland is subdivided into an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. Glucocorticoids also function to reduce inflammation and immune response. PTH stimulates the osteoclasts to break down the calcium containing bone matrix to release free calcium ions into the bloodstream.

Symptoms of acute pancreatitis most commonly begins with abdominal pain in the middle or upper left part of the abdomen and abdominal pain may increase after eating or lying flat the back.

PTH also triggers the kidneys to return calcium ions filtered out of the blood back to the bloodstream so that it is conserved. The testes are a pair of ellipsoid organs found in the scrotum of males that produce the androgen testosterone in males after the start of puberty.

Endocrine System

Within these islets are 2 types of cells—alpha and beta cells. Uterine contractions and milk release. The beta cells produce the hormone insulin, which is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels after a meal. Controls water loss by the kidneys Oxytocin: Water-soluble hormones include the peptide and amino-acid hormones such as insulin, epinephrine, HGH, and oxytocin.

These neurosecretory cells create 2 hormones in the hypothalamus that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary: The endocrine system controls the growth of many tissues, like the bone and muscleand the degree of metabolism of various tissues, which aids in the maintenance of the normal body temperature and normal mental functions.

Calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones; calcitonin is made by the so-called parafollicular cells found in the connective tissues between the follicles.

Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone ADH All of the releasing and inhibiting hormones affect the function of the anterior pituitary gland. Testosterone has effects on many parts of the body, including the muscles, bones, sex organs, and hair follicles.

In people lacking iodine in their diet, they will fail to produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones to maintain a healthy metabolic rate. The gonadotropic hormones regulate the hormonal activity of gonads ovaries and testes.

The endocrine system controls blood glucose levels and other nutrient levels in the blood. Pituitary Gland The pituitary glandalso known as the hypophysis, is a small pea-sized lump of tissue connected to the inferior portion of the hypothalamus of the brain.

Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary There are several hormones of the anterior pituitary hormones that affect many body organs.Endocrine glands: Endocrine organs, called glands, secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones affect the activity of target sites that are often located far from the site of release.

Hormones affect the activity of target sites that are often located far from the site of release. The major endocrine organs of the body include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus glands, the pancreas, and the gonads.

The regulatory functions of the nervous and endocrine systems are similar in some aspects, but differ in such ways. Nov 23,  · Anatomy and Physiology of Endocrine System thyroid diseases what is endocrine system pituitary hormones function of endocrine system endocrine diseases endocrine.

understanding of the endocrine anatomy and physiology is essential in accurately assessing and treating your patients with endocrine abnormalities. After successful completion of this course, the participant will be able to. Oct 27,  · NOTE ERRATA -- Parafollicular C cells are of endodermal origin.

This video covers the embryology and anatomy sections of the Endocrine chapter. Then, I delve into the physiology. View Notes - A&P ENDOCRINE SYSTEM SSFpptx from NURSING at College of San Mateo. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AMALIA FICARRA, RN DSD LEARNING OBJECTIVES List and describe the.

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Anatomy and physiology of the endocrine
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