Differential reinforcement

Where the two types of differential reinforcement differ is with respect to what happens following incorrect or unsatisfactory responses. In this example, reinforcement became available 5 times over a total interval period of 15 minutes.

No part of this article may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. If the child sits upright during the 2 minute fixed-interval no reinforcement would be given because reinforcement for the target behaviour is not available during the fixed-interval.

DRA: Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

Differential reinforcement and Akers called their theory the Differential- Reinforcement theory. In many instances, it is desirable to break down sessions into smaller intervals of time. Just because he emitted the target behaviour sitting upright during the interval does not mean reinforcement is delivered at the end of the interval.

Differential Association Theory

If one student responds with an incomplete or less than satisfactory answer, the teacher simply calls upon another student to respond to the original question. Pfohl writes in his book, Images of deviance and social control, that the likelihood of deviant behavior could be determined by calculating the difference between favorable and unfavorable associations It is then assumed that if the individual is capable of learning what is acceptable in society, they are also not capable of learning what is considered unacceptable.

Extinction is the discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior. Specifically a VR3 schedule. Provide time to practice the skill If there are few opportunities for the student to practice and use the skill, the instructor should question why the skill is being taught!

Differential Reinforcement of Alternate Behaviors DRA — is the reinforcement of behaviors which serve as alternatives to problem or inappropriate behavior, especially alternative means of communication.

James uses socially appropriate behavior to greet peers but does so up to ten times in one class period. Fixed-Interval Schedule FI A fixed-interval schedule means that reinforcement becomes available after a specific period of time.


If he greets peers more than five times, he does not receive reinforcement. A token economy will be used to increase wanted behaviors. However, raising her hand is a more socially acceptable alternative. As training progresses the trainer stops reinforcing the less accurate approximations.

Differential Reinforcement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Referring to the contact an individual must have with proponents of criminal behavior; this principle suggests that there is a varying, but direct, relationship that effects how often, for what length of time, how important and how intense deviant behavior occurs.

Sutherland is credited with the development of the Differential Association theory in Reinforcement is delivered following a behavior that is incompatible with cannot be performed at the same time as the targeted inappropriate behavior e.

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors DRI — is the reinforcement of behaviors which are incompatible with problem or inappropriate behaviors that are behaviors which the child cannot be doing simultaneously.

Differential Reinforcement

There are four forms of differential reinforcement: If Julie does pull her hair, she is not reinforced and the timer is reset. If reinforcement were occurring, random behaviors should increase in frequency because they should have been rewarded by random food.The purpose of this study was to further expand the evidence-based literature on the effectiveness of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) as an isolated.

Differential Reinforcement Krystina Sapienza What is Differential Reinforcement? Reinforcing only those responses within a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimensions (ie.

frequency, topography, latency, duration, & magnitude) and placing all other options in. Differential Reinforcement is the implementation of reinforcing only the appropriate response (or behavior you wish to increase) and applying extinction to all other responses. Extinction is the discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior.

A basic principle of differential reinforcement is the concept of discrimination. Shaping is a conditioning paradigm used primarily in the experimental analysis of behavior.

The method used is differential reinforcement of successive approximations. It was introduced by B. F. Skinner [1] with pigeons and extended to dogs, dolphins, humans and other species.

The differential reinforcement process operates in four key modes: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Consider the following scenario.

Schedules of Reinforcement

John is a quiet and shy boy who has difficulty making friends. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior 3 A similar procedure, Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI), involves reinforcement of an incompatible alternative behavior while ignoring the inappropriate.

Differential reinforcement
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